Friday, February 29, 2008

What is Role Playing?

Every culture on the face of the earth has games and every generation of humanity its unique forms of entertainment. Our civilization is no different. We have sports games, board games galore, card games, and centuries of gambling games that are still with us. One of the more creative types of games recently developed is the role-playing game, or RPG. RPGs cover every conceivable genre, time period and location. While each of the various games has complicated rules involving how actions are to be performed, the real mainstay of RPGs, specifically the non-computer versions, is the assumption of a role (other than yourself). This is one of the main features of role- playing games, the distinction between player and character. The player is the person and the character is the fictional person in a fictional world.

To the uninformed, it is very hard to describe a role-playing game. Most people understand games. Games have winners, but the very nature of the role-playing game makes it impossible to win. There cannot be a winner because role-playing games are not a competition. It is not a race that ends with the first to cross the finish line, nor is there points that accumulate to determine the victor when the game ends. It is a game of pretend, of make-believe. The only individuals who could even possibly be considered the winner are the players who play well. The old adage of "It doesn't matter whether or you win or lose, but how you play the game" is the rule of winner determination in role-playing games.

In the introduction of every role-playing game is a notice of the impossibility of winners, but there are still those who play the game to win. These are the players who record their successes by the amount of numbers they can rack up on a character sheet. They believe strongly that he who dies with the most toys wins. The other people in the game, whether fellow players or individuals designed and run by the GM, are only the means to an end. Opponents are there to provide experience points and treasure items. They manipulate game mechanics and search for loopholes to make themselves even more powerful. These sad souls are frustrated with the role-players who, they feel, slow the game with wordy explanations of simple game mechanics.

These "power gamers" play as one might play a board game. They often follow the logic of "Kick in the door, kill the monster, and on to the next door." These gamers do not play any type of role. Their characters have no personality. They just move their characters on the playing board collecting items. They are just waiting until they pass the mythical GO to collect what ever the rules say they should receive. This same mentality assumes that once a goal is reached, one has only to extend a palm face up to receive a reward. These individuals cannot wait to meet the grand vizier, as he is the one to ask for the powerful magic items. Never mind that the situation might not warrant such requests. Unfortunately, these non-role-players believe that every event within a game has some reward associated with it.

Sadder still are the gamers who play their characters as they might play themselves should they have access to the fantastic powers and abilities that abound within games. They act as if they were suddenly able to kill with impunity, fling lightning bolts at their enemies, and steal with the skills of a master cat burglar. There is no difference between who they are and who their characters are. Game after game, each of their characters has the same personality regardless of abilities, race, or genre. Rarely do these characters even have names, being called whatever the player's name is!

Some players view their characters as some third person puppet. They speak as if they were some omnipotent god controlling their characters. "James wants to stand watch first." No one sounds like that. A real person would say, "I'll take the first watch." Good role-players note that real people do not walk into Sears, look at the salesperson and say, "I want to ask the salesperson about buying a lamp." Good role-playing is acting, or trying to act, just as that person would. It is talking as a real person would, even if the person you are interacting with is a lowly merchant who is never dealt with again. The good gamer plays out negotiations with others, speaking just like a person in real life, and such acting is major part of any quality role- playing games.

Role-players, good role-players, understand that the character they create is not a human raised in the modern world. It is someone else, someone who has had different social factors to shape their psychological makeup. It is very difficult to imagine how one might behave if one had centuries to live, could smell gold, or was raised in the lap of fourteenth century luxury. Therein lies the true test of a good role-player and the reason for participating in the role-playing game instead of playing chess. Role-playing is akin to improvisational acting. It is about people becoming someone other than themselves, but with no script, just motivational cues. It is becoming people who have had different factors shaping their lives, affecting their social views and their outlook on life in general.

Like a good writer, the true goal of a quality role-player is to create the feel that characters are more than scraps of paper with a series of numbers upon them. We've all seen those great role players who worked to avoid the use of game mechanic terms. Even the players who enjoy number crunching often take notice of players who worked hard to find real life expressions to state mechanical terms. "I have 1 hit point left," became, "I've been severely wounded, but I'll live". "Faster than a speeding bullet," may be a fine way to describe a superhero, but not a fantasy character in a world that has yet to develop gunpowder. This is the heart and soul of the role-playing. This is the reason for the game, not the how high you can rack up statistics.

The best role-players work to make their characters seem alive. After a gaming session, you get the feeling somebody else was in the room with you. They seem like another person entirely. It is like some otherworldly presence that invades the room during your gaming session. You may walk away angry that your dark lord was turned in by the player running the chivalrous knight, but you should respect when the knight refuses to take part in an adventure because the line between right and wrong was unclear. He has sacrificed for the sake of the role, which is the name of the game.

Tuesday, January 15, 2008

Core Combat Attributes

Buried deep within every game system, whether paper & pencil, console, or MMORPG is the engine that drives combat. Hardcore mathematicians spend countless hours discussion these core mechanics. Testers spend even more time helping to perfect the exact details and values of the base line numbers. But, when you strip away all the superfluous additions, addendums, discussion, and even testing, what remains are 4 core concepts; Avoidance, Mitigation, Chance, Damage. While their names are subject to the whims of game designers, these four fundamental attributes form the utmost basis of good game design. Each one is juxtaposed by another, and it takes a great deal of work to have all four in perfect balance.

In any given combat, it all starts with an act . . . something, somebody desires to do. Whether that somebody is a computer controlled object or a player, all combat starts something initiating a combat maneuver. Regardless of the genre, game system, graphics, professions or any other details, every single game uses something to represent a degree of success in that act. For lack of a better term, that is the Chance. Depending on the game mechanics, this could involve hundreds of variables, but when all is said and done, a random number generator fires off and the result checked against that Chance.

Avoidance is the counter to Chance and is perhaps the easiest to understand. Like all four attributes, numerous mathematical computations can take into account the ability of the object (object being any given person or entity within a game) to deflect, dodge, duck, parry, weave, jump, and other such verbiage to describe an objects desire to just not be hit. Depending on the desire of the core team, this could represent either a reduction in the chance to hit, or even another randomized chance representing a complete negation in the successfully determined hit.

After determining if a combat action has indeed connected with its target, how much damage the initiator inflicts on the target must be calculated. Damage is the simplest of the four. It is the raw amount of damage being inflicted and can be affected by several factions including, but not limited to skill, weapon type, weapon size, weapon construction, training, hit location, or any thing game designers can imagine. Here to, a balance must be achieved in determining the overall damage by taking into account the rate of damage attempts versus the potential value range. Large possible damage values have a lower frequency rates. The massive, but slow two handed sword as apposed to the small but quick dagger.

Having determined if the combat action succeeds and how much potential damage is, the last stage is to determine the amount, if any, of mitigation occurs. This fourth statistic reduces to incoming damage to reflect the ability of the target to absorb the incoming blow rather than deflecting it. Mitigation is to Damage what Avoidance is to Chance to hit. Some games use a general damage allocation system and bundle Avoidance and Mitigation in a single statistic. Some even adjust the mitigation factor by damage type to achieve combat harmony. In game design, good game design, the lower the Mitigation the higher the Avoidance.

In any given game system, there are far more factors that those listed above; however, these attributes form the core of the mathematical combat engine. Balancing these attributes is among the hardest to perfect and consume large amounts of test and design time. If not perfectly in tune, a game system can collapse. In practice, perfection is never fully achieved, but it is a goal the designers strive for nonetheless.